The Establishment of Al-Qaeda

Introduction: This essay analyses the factors that facilitated the establishment of al-Qaeda through addressing three aspects of the group, namely, ideology, organisation, and militancy. This analysis first examines the development of Salafi-Jihadism through the 1979 siege of Mecca and the writings of al-Utaybi that embedded the notion of defensive Jihad into the Salafi belief. This …

Australia – The United States’ Pet

“We have significantly diminished our capacity to act as a separate sovereign nation by the way we have committed ourselves to American purposes […] the most likely reason Australia would need to confront an aggressive foe is our strong alliance with the United States. We need America for defence from an attacker who is likely …

Was Donald Trump an Effective President?

Donald Trump has been highly effective exercising executive power to pursue policy objectives; however, due to his failures in delivering on widely controversial campaign promises, Trump has been a significantly ineffective president. Trump is reflective of a strong unitary executive (Kovacs 2018, 554). Most notably attributed to the broad use of executive power by the …

Colonialism and the Indian Textile Industry

British colonialism severely impacted the Indian textile industry and economy during the 100-year colonial period, and has had long-lasting effects progression and development of this industry today. These impacts can be attributed to the rapid advancements in technology, reformation of state policy, and the strict rule of the British Raj in the 19th and 20th …

The Ayodhya Dispute

An Introduction This essay explores a plot of land in Ayodhya, a township in eastern Uttar Pradesh, that was the subject of religious debate between India’s Muslims and Hindus, dating back to the 16th century. Upon mentioning the ‘plot’ or ‘site’ in Ayodhya or referencing a ‘dispute’, I will be referring to the contested site …

Iron Women

The Women’s Protection Units (YPJ) are a female military group consisting of predominantly Kurdish women that fight alongside the Syrian Democratic Forces. The group is pushing for the Kurdish region of Rojava in North-Eastern Syria to become officially autonomous. The successes of the YPJ faction illustrate the need for gender equity within military complexes. The …

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